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  • DNA and Drug Testing Blog

Blog Articles

January 01, 2019

Who Must Submit to Reasonable Suspicion Testing in Commercial Vehicle Operation?

The job of identifying potential drug use by a commercial driver is subjective, only to be done by a trained supervisor.  All CDL holders must comply. The Transportation Employee Testing Act – passed in 1991 and in full effect 1995 – specifies that employers in the transportation industry are responsible for maintaining alcohol- and drug-free workplaces. In other words, any driver-employee who is or could be called upon to operate a commercial vehicle cannot do so while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. With this responsibility placed on employers as well as drivers (who by definition hold commercial drivers’ licenses,…
December 09, 2018

Who Must Submit to Pre Employment Testing Among Commercial Drivers

Holders of commercial drivers’ licenses (CDLs) are required by federal law to be tested for drug use as a condition for hiring. Employers oversee the testing. Since 1991, with the passage of the Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act, the drivers of all commercial vehicles – who by definition hold a commercial drivers’ license (CDL) – are required to be tested for drug and alcohol consumption under the following circumstances: Pre-employment (pre-employment drug testing for controlled substances only, not alcohol) Reasonable suspicion (when behavior suggests there may be active use) Post-accident (if a citation was issued, if there was a fatality or bodily…
November 12, 2018

Who Must Submit to Post-Accident Testing and When?

In most cases, when a traffic citation is issued it becomes necessary to test all CDL holders involved, even if they were not the recipient of the citation. The reason the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) requires post-accident drug testing of drivers and others in safety-sensitive functions* is to promote safety on the roads. This helps prevent accidents that endanger drivers and passengers. It is the responsibility for all holders of commercial drivers’ licenses (CDLs) to remain sober and safe in their operation of a commercial vehicle – at all times. In most cases, drivers are subject to mandatory random testing for drug…
October 16, 2018

Which Employees Fall Under the DOT Drug Testing Regulations?

Almost anyone working in transport – by land, sea, air, railroad, even pipelines – is responsible for public safety and they need to be substance free. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) implements the Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991, which essentially requires all workers engaged in safety-sensitive positions to be subject to alcohol and drug testing.  This is a broad-reaching bill that encompasses operators of motor vehicles (trucks and buses), ships, aircraft, railways, public transportation, and pipelines. Importantly, this includes regular operators in each of these industries (e.g., holders of commercial driver’s licenses in surface transportation vehicles), as well…
September 11, 2018

Which Employees Fall Under FMCSA Drug Testing Rules?

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration oversees surface transportation operators. Drug and alcohol testing are required to ensure public safety. There’s no excuse for employers who do not comply with the Transportation Employee Testing Act. The bill was passed in 1991 and took full effect as of January 1, 1995. But remarkably, some employers do not know what it requires – testing of employees who operate commercial motor vehicles – and that failure to comply can make the employer responsible for injuries in case of an accident. The law applies specifically to operators holding commercial driver’s licenses  (CDLs) working in safety-sensitive…
August 13, 2018

Which Classes of Controlled Substances are Tested on Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators?

The law requires employers large and small to test all CDL-holding drivers of commercial vehicles to test for drug use. There are some medical exceptions. In some circumstances, mandatory drug testing of individuals is debated, particularly around recipients of public aid and high school athletes. But one place where the law is settled and the rationale is sound is around transportation. The federal law requiring drug testing of commercial motor vehicle operators – as well as those who pilot aircraft, engineer railroads, captain ships, operate public transportation and even those who are in charge of hazardous materials and operating pipelines…
July 09, 2018

Urine Sample Collection: The Procedure as Outlined by the DHHS

The Department for Health and Human Services has formalized the procedures to test for drugs and alcohol as a condition for employment. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services includes among its objectives the support of drug free workplaces in the private sector. Its subordinate agency, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), provides specific guidelines on how such employee drug testing programs are administered. A chief concern is the procedure for sample collection for urine drug testing, or “urinalysis”. These need to be provided in a scientifically valid, fair, and equitable manner. So SAMHSA issued a Urine Specimen Collection…
June 12, 2018

How Does a Random Drug Testing Consortium Work?

The US DOT rules apply to all holders of commercial driver’s licenses in companies of all sizes. Consortiums enable smaller firms to do it right. In a large company with, say, 400 employees who drive commercial vehicles as part of the company’s work, it’s mathematically easy to implement a random drug testing program to satisfy Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements on all commercial drivers’ licenses (CDLs).  But what about the independent CDL operator, or the company with five or ten or twenty drivers on staff? In the case of the former, a “randomized, mandatory” drug test seems a little silly, given the…
May 10, 2018

How Do Labs Get Certified Under the NLCP?

The National Laboratory Certification Program regulates drug and alcohol testing labs to ensure fairness to employees and effectiveness to employers. When the U.S. Federal Government set about creating drug-free workplaces and transportation in the 1980s – an aftermath of drug use among U.S. soldiers who used drugs in the Vietnam War – laws were established in such a way to ensure both accuracy and fairness. Fortunately, the two go hand in hand. With greater accuracy in employee drug testing methodologies, as well as in how tests are administered and results are recorded, a greater degree of fairness is ensured for all concerned. If…
April 23, 2018

The Role of the Medical Review Officer (MRO) in Substance Abuse Training

The credentials and training of a board-certified physician ensure matters of science and legal compliance in employee drug testing programs. Drug and alcohol testing of employees – during and prior to their employment – is a means of ensuring a safe and productive workplace. In the private sector the decision to test is entirely voluntary in non-safety oriented work, but any employer with vehicles operating on land, sea, and air is responsible to meet the requirements of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). The regulations around DOT drug testing procedures are uniformly administered to ensure safety and fairness. Part of that objective is met…
April 11, 2018

DOT Safety-Sensitive Duties Under Federal Drug Testing Requirements

For more than 25 years, the U.S. has required drug and alcohol-free workplaces on ships, planes, trucks, and railroads – to safer outcomes.  The Department of Transportation (DOT) is tasked with the responsibility of assuring that no drug and alcohol use occurs with those entrusted with the safety of the public. This they accomplish through establishing policy and requirements as well as rules for what’s known as DOT drug testing. Anyone who has doubts that the Federal drug testing requirements are important should double check which industries and duties it covers. They are: Airlines/Pilots, as administered by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Surface transportation…
March 27, 2018

Reporting and Record Keeping Procedures for Employee Drug Testing

The Department of Health and Human Services endeavors to reduce drug usage overall in the U.S. But it recognizes the need for privacy and documentation. Part and parcel of the imperatives to ensure a drug free workplace is the need to protect the privacy of all employees, particularly on matters of health and, in some cases, substance abuse. This includes not only who has access to urine test results, but how records are kept to maintain controls on that access. First, every employer must have a designated Medical Review Officer (MRO), who is by definition a medical or osteopathic doctor…
March 15, 2018

Live Scan Digital Fingerprinting - Questions and Answers

Frequently Asked Questions about Live Scan Digital Fingerprinting Even though some businesses and agencies still require ink card fingerprinting, Live Scan digital fingerprinting has quickly become the standard. For many reasons, Live Scan digital fingerprinting is preferred, not the least being that it is a faster, cleaner and more streamlined process. As with all new technology, there are questions and we have the answers: What is “Live Scan”? Live Scan is a faster, more accurate and more reliable fingerprinting method than using standard print cards. Live Scan is “inkless, ”producing a digital image of fingerprints capable of being transmitted electronically…
January 08, 2018

How Do Breath Alcohol Testing Devices Work?

Breath alcohol testing is commonplace in workplaces, with its most basic tool being a handheld breath analyzing device. The goal is to save money and lives. Breath alcohol testing devices – often referred to by one brand name, “Breathalyzer” ­– are used by policing agencies as well as companies that have drug and alcohol policies in place. Their use is almost always done in accordance with an established alcohol and drug-free workplace policy and implemented by a drug and alcohol testing service. These “breathalyzers” operate according to the biological response to alcohol consumption: When a person consumes alcohol, it is…
December 12, 2017

Drug and Alcohol Policies are for Companies of All Sizes

Pre-employment drug testing, post-accident testing and zero-tolerance policies are as effective in small companies as in the Fortune 500. According to the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), more than half of employers – 57 percent – conduct drug tests on all job candidates. Testing is heavily represented in the Fortune 500; 97 percent of Fortune 500 companies have articulated drug-free workplace policies, and 67 percent of those companies conduct drug-testing of employees, either as a condition of hiring, randomly, or in incident-related situations. But it’s not just large companies that can benefit from pre-employment drug testing. Any company that…
November 15, 2017

Reasonable Suspicion Training: Why Every Company Should Do It

Part of having a drug and alcohol policy at your company is to enforce it when violated. But identifying substance abuse in the workplace is tricky.  Companies with drug-free policies have different ways of educating employees on those policies and how the policies are implemented. One of the more challenging components of this is “reasonable suspicion testing,” which essentially requires supervisors to take on a role that may be unfamiliar to them. In a survey of companies conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), about one third (35%) of employers conduct reasonable suspicion testing. This is less common…
October 18, 2017

Employee Drug Testing and Confidentiality

How Confidentiality is Ensured in Employee Drug Testing Privacy concerns have always pervaded the matter of workplace employee drug testing. The courts now define the rules and methods have adjusted appropriately. In California and throughout the United States, employee drug testing has become more the norm than the exception. Testing workers’ urine or hair samples for evidence of use of illegal and abuse of prescription drugs began in the 1980s and has steadily increased. But along with its use has come concern for privacy and confidentiality. This has been addressed by the courts and in workplace policies that are used by both…
September 12, 2017

Recreational and Medical Marijuana Use and The Workplace

The legalization of marijuana in several states–for medicinal and recreational purposes–does not bar employers from implementing drug-prohibition policies.  The standard of a "zero-tolerance, drug-free workplace" has entered uncharted territory. The use of marijuana – as a physician-prescribed medicine, and as a legal recreational substance – is now in the category of alcohol use. But it’s not really the same thing. Keeping in mind that while marijuana has been legalized in some of the individual states, it remains illegal on the federal level. This alone illustrates the lack of resolve on this question. Regarding what is legal in workplaces, California and…
August 14, 2017

Teen Drug Testing and Extra-Curricular Activities

How Extracurricular Activities Benefit from Teen Drug Testing Drug testing on students who wish to participate in extracurricular activities is sanctioned by the Supreme Court. The benefits are about more than just safety. Two U.S. Supreme Court cases have effectively answered constitutional questions on drug testing high school students. One case specifically addressed school athletics (Vernonia School District v. Acton, 1995) and another extra-curricular activities (Board of Education v. Earls, 2002). In both cases, the Court determined that considerations for safety overrode the Fourth Amendment, which otherwise prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures. That’s not to say that teen drug testing does not continue to…
July 10, 2017

What Defines a Strong Drug Free Workplace Policy?

A clear and comprehensive drug and alcohol policy at your company protects both employees and employer. A written policy with a clear set of rules is a must. According to the Council on Alcohol and Drugs, American business owners lose an estimated $160 billion per year due to drug and alcohol use by employees. Those losses come by various means, including injuries and worker compensation insurance premiums, damaged equipment, lawsuits, lost productivity, and additional healthcare costs. Fortunately, there are solutions and strategies for minimizing these costs. Companies, big and small, utilize employee drug testing services that help identify potential problems. But…
June 14, 2017

DNA Testing Labs and DNA Testing Services

The concept of DNA, once confined to science labs, has become ingrained in the culture, but that doesn't mean there isn't much to understand. Over the past couple of decades, the term “DNA” has become part of the American vernacular. It makes regular appearances on all the crime scene investigation shows, on our daytime talk shows with topics like “Who’s Your Daddy?” and prominently (and more importantly) in our criminal justice system. DNA testing centers for consumers have sprung up in every city and even small towns. Most DNA testing labs specialize in either familial relationship DNA testing or in criminal DNA…
May 16, 2017

The Cost Of Drug And Alcohol Abuse In The Workplace

Substance abuse is widespread, including among the employed. Employers can make a difference with drug-free policies and employee testing. America’s opioid crisis shows no sign of abatement: In 2016, 42,200 deaths were attributed to abuse of pharmaceutical opioids, synthetic versions of opioids, and heroin. Overall drug deaths for the year numbered 63,600 – up from 52,400 total in 2015, according to the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Those deaths represent only a fraction of ongoing illegal drug use. The American Society of Addiction Medicine, a non-profit organization, says that 20.5 million…
April 10, 2017

Eight Don'ts of Employee Drug Testing

Employee Drug Testing: Eight Don'ts The business of testing employees suspected of being under the influence can be a tricky and sensitive matter. It is, therfore, strongly advised to be aware of what to do and what not to do. Don't ever drug test your employees without a company Drug & Alcohol Policy in place that clearly states you will test your employees for drugs. You must have a document in place that outlines your policy on the use of drugs and alcohol in the workplace. Don't create a Drug & Alcohol Policy without checking your state and local laws…
February 14, 2017

Employee Drug Testing Versus Privacy

The Rules on Drug Testing and Legal Privacy in California Employers in California and nationwide are legally able to test for drug use in employees and prospective employees. But there are privacy restrictions. Reportedly, more than 60 percent of Fortune 500 companies conduct some form of employee drug testing, either as a pre-employment screen only or routinely and randomly with employees engaged in safety-related tasks. Additionally, testing may be done for cause, such as when an accident occurred or when an employee’s behaviors suggest there may be drug abuse in that individual. All employees of and many contractors to the federal…
December 13, 2016

The Need for Grandparentage DNA Testing

A Grandparentage DNA Test Can Genetically Link Grandchildren and Grandparents Uncertain parentage naturally means uncertain grandparentage. But DNA can provide reasonable certainty about a grandparent, even in absence of a parent. Why the need for grandparentage DNA testing? In many families, the relationship between one or several grandparents and a grandchild can be just as meaningful as the relationship that child has with his or her parents. That grandchild-grandparent relationship can be even stronger when a parent is absent. But there can also be times when that relationship may be uncertain. An absent or deceased father or mother can lead to…
October 12, 2016

Random Drug Testing and the Department of Transportation (DOT)

The Department of Transportation Randomly Tests for Employee Drug Use Random drug testing of employees is about more than surprise. With appropriate randomizer tools, it administers an important safety measure with fairness. Drug testing of workers in safety-sensitive work assignments have been conducted in public and private workplaces since the 1980s. It is a practice that puts all employees and the public on notice that alcohol and illegal drug use in the workplace is not tolerated, and that the employer is looking out for public safety overall. The clearest and most convincing argument for worker drug testing is in the…
August 18, 2016

The Need for Avuncular DNA Testing

Why Avuncular DNA – From Uncles or Aunts – Is Sometimes Needed DNA can prove direct lineage, i.e., the relationship of birth parents to children. Avuncular DNA can also link aunts and uncles to nieces and nephews. Parenting, like life itself, can be complicated. The nuclear family, with a “Leave it to Beaver” set of parents and children represent only about a quarter of all homes in America today. Single parents and children raised by people other than their birth parents are far more common than ever before. Sometimes a birth mother or father is no longer alive, their whereabouts…
June 13, 2016

Eight Do's of Employee Drug Testing

Employee Drug Testing: Eight Do's Drug testing of employees is serious, sensitive business and it is vital that it be done "by the book". If performed correctly, employee drug testing becomes advantageous rather than a source of confusion at one end of the scale and legal issues on the other end. Here's a short list of "do's" as opposed to "dont's" that can help make the process of drug testing employees go seamlessly:  Do give every employee a copy of your Drug & Alcohol Policy and make certain you have a signed receipt in his or her employee file. You…
April 11, 2016

DNA Testing Basics - An FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions About Why DNA Testing is Used There are legal, health and financial reasons why children and parents can benefit from knowing their genetic lines through DNA testing. According to statistics compiled by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 41 percent of all births in the country are to unmarried women. While in many cases the fathers of these children are present and supportive of those children – even if not technically married to or living with their mothers – it remains critically important that paternity be established for all children. Financial relationships between fathers and…
February 16, 2016

Adulterants In Drug Testing

Is it possible to fool a drug test with adulterants? There are many products on the market that claim to be able to mask drug use in a drug test. Do they work? What are the consequences if they don't? For the person who learns that they will be required to take a drug test – usually, for purposes of employment – it can be no more consequential than being asked to take a vision test. But another person who has engaged in some form of occasional or habitual use of controlled substances, the reaction to drug testing might be very different.…
December 14, 2015

DNA, Crime and Forensics

Whether testing DNA for immigration and adoption or testing DNA for unsolved crimes, the scientific principles are the same. In Phoenix, a home invasion robber had a taste for coca cola. This man was suspect in several area break-ins since he apparently could not resist taking one from the refrigerator of each home he broke into. Consequently, he left behind each can in each house and those soda cans gave investigators enough DNA evidence to link him to 6 burglaries. He is now behind bars for several years due to the DNA he left behind. This is only one example…
October 12, 2015

Workplace Drug Testing: A Good Idea?

When the Workplace Benefits from Employee Drug Testing Drug-free workplaces have become the norm since the late 1980s. How this has benefited employers – and employees – is a major reason why. The federal government, state government agencies and private employers have been instituting drug-free workplace policies since the late 1980s. The effect has been a measurable decrease in employee drug use in the two decades since. According to a 2006 report from the American Management Association, a majority (62 percent) of employers have drug testing programs. In some sectors – government, professional sports and all employers regulated by the…
August 10, 2015

Parents and Teen Drug Testing

Should Parents Consider Teen Drug Testing? Some school athletic programs routinely test all athletes for drug use. But should parents test their children when they have their own suspicions? A series of court cases dating back to the late 1980s has made it largely legal and, apparently, culturally acceptable for high school athletic programs to insist that all participants in sports submit to urinalysis to detect illegal drug use. The courts determined that participation in sports is a voluntary activity therefore the search itself was not an involuntary invasion of privacy. In a 6-3 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court,…
June 17, 2015

The Upside of Paternity DNA Testing

When Paternity DNA Testing Yields a Positive Outcome Uncertainty about "Who is the daddy?" could be grounds for conflict. With paternity DNA testing, the emotions of paternity can yield positive outcomes. Millions of children are born every year in the United States to single mothers. Many of those pregnancies are planned – some even by artificial insemination – and yet it often happens that the father of the child is unknown, unproven or un-documented. This is unfortunate for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the emotional relationship between the father and the child. Clearly, paternity involves financial…
April 14, 2015

Medical Marijuana and Workplace Drug Testing

How Does Medical Marijuana Mix With a Drug Free Workplace Policy? Medical marijuana and workplace prohibitions of off-hours drug use are both legal in California – and in conflict. The courts define how it works (for now). The prevalence of drug-free workplace policies – about 60 percent of employers nationwide now conduct pre-employment drug screening – has run up against the legalization of medical marijuana, which is now available in a handful of states, including California. So is it possible for someone who is using legally dispensed medical marijuana to be given special dispensation by an employer who routinely prescreen…
February 09, 2015

Drug Free Workplace Policy Protects Your Company

Protecting Your Company with a Drug Free Workplace Policy Since the federal Drug-free Workplace Act of 1990 was implemented, drug use by employees has declined while employers reduced risks. Over the past two decades, drug-free workplace policies have become the norm in more than 60 percent of medium- to large-sized companies. This is largely attributed to the Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988, which officially affects federal government workplaces and some contractors, however it created a cultural tendency to implement drug testing in private workplaces as well. California’s own Drug-free Workplace Act of 1990 requires contractors and grant recipients in the state…
November 10, 2014

Paternity DNA Testing and the Deceased

How the Deceased are DNA Tested – and Why? Paternity and other family relations are sometimes uncertain among the living. But paternity DNA testing can be done on the deceased – for good reasons. Paternity DNA testing has become more vitally important than ever. The number of children born out of wedlock in the United States is more than 1.7 million per year, according to the Center for Disease Control’s National Center for Health Statistics. This number continues to rise, both in size and proportion of total births, almost every year. Most concerns focus on the social and economic impacts of…
August 12, 2014

Random Drug Testing In Schools

Schools Engage in Random Drug Testing – But Selectively Student athletes and members of non-athletic extracurricular groups can be tested for drug use as a condition of participation, according to the Supreme Court. For generations, drug use by school age children and teens has been a concern of parents, educators and law enforcement officials. Their efforts to curb illegal drugs by students – with education programs and selective or random drug testing programs – are believed to have been partially effective. Data cited by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), a department of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, shows that…
May 15, 2014

Hair Drug Testing Versus Urinalysis

The Differences Between Drug Screening with Hair Drug Testing and Urinalysis Urinalysis and hair drug testing are not equivalent to each other. Hair samples cost more on a per-person basis, but can yield a more accurate reading. There are many types of workplaces that now use employee drug testing. It has become a matter of course for most jobs that are safety-critical to require pre-employment, random and post-accident testing. However, companies with information or administrative employees often require drug testing as well. The results are lower accident rates, better retention and deterrence from use. Employers have two primary methods of conducting…
February 09, 2014

Immigration DNA Testing - The Basics

Immigration DNA Testing of Visa Applicants Aids Legitimate Immigration Because familial relationships can help foreigners become legitimate U.S. residents, DNA tests are a valuable immigration tool. Immigration policy in the U.S. has historically followed three principles: reunify families where one or more member is a lawful permanent resident, permit those who have skills that are important to the American economy, and to protect refugees of conflict. Within each of these principles, of course, there is debate as to who qualifies – for example, who is a close family relative when that family comes from a country where documents proving such…
November 10, 2013

Drug Testing: The Basics

Understanding drug addiction - and how drug testing works - can help parents know when its time to act. Few will argue that drug abuse has become one of our nations biggest domestic problems. Drugs, and the heartbreak that follows, have invaded both urban and rural communities across the country, inflicting devastation wherever they appear. Younger and younger children are experimenting with drugs and now, even elementary school age children have been found abusing marijuana, prescription drugs pilfered from their parent’s medicine cabinets and drugs manufactured from over-the-counter concoctions and hawked to them by older students. Half of all seniors…
August 12, 2013

Supervisor Training and Drugs in the Workplace

How Workplace Supervisors Can Recognize Employees Drug Use Workplace supervisors are saddled with a dilemma: Stopping drug use by employees while staying within privacy and employment laws. Professional training can help. It has become commonplace in American companies to have some sort of employee drug testing policy in place. But how those policies are implemented vary by company as well as location, as state privacy and employment laws can differ considerably. This puts workplace supervisors in a difficult position, sometimes, as they may suspect drug use but feel they are restricted in what they can do about it. Supervisors should receive professional…
May 16, 2013

Paternity DNA Testing, Prisoners and Parents

Dad is in Prison – Is Paternity DNA Testing Possible? Knowing a child’s paternity is very important, even if the father is in prison. California’s legal process for conducting a paternity DNA test on someone behind bars is relatively simple. Even if the likely father of a child is in prison, it can be useful to know if he is or is not the father of the child. By definitively establishing paternity by performing paternity DNA testing, the child can benefit in several ways: Understand his or her family genetics – Because emerging genetic science offers clues to diseases, the child can…
February 12, 2013

The Benefits of On-Site Drug Testing

Workplaces With On-Site Drug Testing More Productive Both random drug testing and post-accident tests for substances interrupt workflow. But employee productivity is maximized when testing is done on-site. In workplaces where accidents and safety are a concern, on-site drug testing is often the protocol whenever one or several employees were involved in a mishap. This can be done to identify the cause of an accident, and can also help in post-accident litigation to establish what was at fault. While post-accident on-site drug testing is the norm in such workplaces, there are many companies that also maintain random drug testing programs (unrelated to accidents) that…
November 08, 2012

Prenatal DNA Testing and Pregnancy

How and Why DNA Testing Works in Pregnancy For the sake of a child, it is important to establish paternity, the sooner the better. Prenatal DNA testing is possible, establishing who the father is before birth. DNA testing continues to evolve for the better as scientists find more and better applications for DNA testing to better answer cultural and sociological issues that arise. Prenatal DNA testing is one of the newest applications for DNA testing that is fast becoming a popular and necessary part of parenting and pregnancy in America’s nuclear family. Despite the myth of perfect nuclear families throughout American history, the fact…
August 13, 2012

The DOT and Random Drug Testing

Random Drug Testing is Required by the Department of Transportation Both the California and U.S. Departments of Transportation require that some commercial licensed drivers be subjected to random drug testing. The reasons are simple: no operator of large vehicles should be doing so while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. In California, this includes those individuals holding commercial licenses, which include classes A, B and C with a hazardous materials endorsement. The individuals who must be tested include the following: Individuals or employees of companies that own or lease commercial vehicles. Local, state and federal government employees. Civic organizations and…
May 11, 2012

DNA Testing and Adoption

In Various Adoption Scenarios, DNA Testing Can Be Useful Shifting laws and advancing technologies around childbirth and parentage have fortunately coincided with advanced DNA testing. It’s a tool for problem solving. Adoption in the 21st century is evolved considerably from where it was decades ago. Formerly, some adoptees were never even told they were adopted. When they were, the assumption was largely that the birth parents, mother and father, were inaccessible and irrelevant in their lives. Things have changed. Today some are “open” adoptions, where the adoptive parents form a relationship with the birth mother (and sometimes the father) during…

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